In addition to the above, other factors such as faulty restorations, cement left following restoration delivery, and/or loose components can also play a significant role in the development of peri-implantitis.
Although restorations of dental implants have demonstrated high success, one study suggested that over a five-year period, 0 to 14.4% of dental implants demonstrated peri-implant inflammatory reactions associated with crestal bone loss.
Because there are biologic differences between teeth and implants, the progression of infection around implants is different than natural teeth. The inflammatory cell infiltrate around implants was reported to be larger and extend more apically when compared to a corresponding lesion in the gingival tissue around natural teeth. In addition, the tissues around implants are more susceptible to plaque-associated infections that spread into the alveolar bone.
Dental Implant Restoration & Treatment
There are many methods of treating peri-implantitis that have been documented. Most focus on removal of the contaminating agent from the implant surface. These treatments include:
1. Administration of systemic antibiotics alone
2. Mechanical debridement with or without systemic antibiotic treatment(3)
3. Mechanical debridement with or without localized drug delivery and chlorhexidine oral rinses(3a)
4. Mechanical debridement combined with LASER decontamination(4)
5. Surgical debridement, and more recently…
6. Surgical debridement with guided bone regeneration (GBR) for reparation of bony and soft-tissue defects(5).